1. Consultancy
  2. Aerospace


Expertise in the aerospace sector has been gained through a range of software development, R&D and consultancy projects.

Jet engine

Zentech has expertise in the aerospace sector in both engine and airframe applications. Historically the work has usually involved metallic components and the simulation of crack growth in those components. For engine applications, high temperature effects contribute to the difficulty of such simulations.

Although the usage of Additive Manufactured (AM), Cold Spray AM (CSAM) and Cold Spray Repair Technology in the aerospace industry, both defence and civil, is increasing steadily, so far it has remained mainly in low stress regions of an aircraft such as stabilators, fins and other control surfaces. This is to prevent any delamination inherited during manufacturing process from propagating further and affecting the operating safety and integrity of the aircraft. It is clearly stated in the US MIL Standard MIL-STD-1530D (1) and the NASA Standard NASA-HDBK-5010 (2), that it is a mandatory requirement that in order to use additive manufactured components or repairs in high stress areas, Durability And Damage Tolerance (DADT) analyses based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles should be performed and certified.

It has been shown (3-5) that it is possible to perform DADT analysis using a small crack (sub mm) propagation law as postulated by Hartman-Schijve via their modified NASGRO equation. This law, implemented as a standard option in Zencrack, can also be used for assessment of DADT of composite materials, adhesive lap joints and naturally occurring discontinuities due to corrosion.

Project work includes:

  • a range of finite element analysis projects from internal engine components and casings to landing gear
  • development of Zencrack software arising from initial consultancy work to develop stand-alone routines for crack simulation
  • development of high-temperature thermo-mechanical solutions for combined fatigue and time dependent crack growth simulation
  • investigation of the influence of cracks in additive manufactured components and adhesive repairs
  • investigation of crack growth from the root of surface pits

Consultancy work in this area involving crack simulation is supported by our proprietary Zencrack software.


1. MIL-STD-1530D, Standard Practice Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP), Department of Defense: Washington, DC, USA, 2016.

2. NASA-HDBK-5010, Fracture Control Handbook for Payloads, Experiments, And Similar Hardware, May 2005, Revalidated 2017. Available online:

3. Application of the Hartman–Schijve equation to represent Mode I and Mode II fatigue delamination growth in composites
R. Jones, S. Pitt, A.J. Bunner, D. Hui
Composite Structures, 2012, 94, 1343-1351

4. Fatigue crack growth and damage tolerance
R. Jones
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 2014, 37, 363-483

5. On Cyclic-Fatigue Crack Growth in Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy-Polymer Composites
Silvain Michel, Neal Murphy, Anthony J. Kinloch, Rhys Jones
Polymers, 2024, 16, 435.